Analyzing Human and Artificial Intelligence
Many are fascinated by the concept of AI, and yet many are worried that it might pose some serious threats to humanity. Before reaching any conclusion, it’s important to know how the two types of intelligence differs.
AI, an acronym for Artificial Intelligence, is a concept which is few decades old now, the term was first coined by John McCarthy in 1956. And the idea of having machine based intelligence can be found in some of Turing’s work also. While the idea had been there for quite sometime, it has only just recently begun to see the tremendous development. And this can entirely be attributed to the progress in hardware and software technology. The arrival of internet sped up the process several folds. The world is more connected now than it has ever been, and this has encouraged the tech community and enterprises to use machine intelligence to solve complicated problems which are nearly impossible for humans to solve.
Humans have different hardware than machines for intelligence.
Before considering the differences between natural intelligence and artificial intelligence, we must first understand what we mean by intelligence. Intelligence may refer to act of solving problems in efficient ways. We have have been wired by the nature to posses some sort of intelligence. We are in fact the most intelligent creature on the earth right now. The reason we evolved to be more intelligent than most of the species is because we happened to meet the right conditions for possessing intelligence, and it helped us with survival. The more intelligent we get, the better we are at surviving and producing offspring. And once something is proved to have enhanced the chances of our survival, it gets rewarded by the nature in that the specie gets more of it. And our brain, which carries the function of intelligence, is a result of millions of years of extremely slow process of evolution through natural selection. It receives data through sensory receptors (ears, nose mouths etc), processes that data, and makes decision based on that, it is also quite good at storing that data for future manipulation. The data and everything else in the brain is nothing but chemicals, so the functionality of the entire brain is limited only by the speed at which these chemicals interact with each other, and this is roughly 120 ms^-1.
On other hand, computers are built using electrical components, the central and the most important part of every computer is microprocessor, it is made of transistors. Several billions of them are tied together on a chip, not more than few cm^2 in area, to make microprocessor. Just like brain, microprocessors also have the mechanism to receive data in the form of input, store them in the registers (memory components), process them and produce an output. The only difference is that it can do it much faster than the brain, owing to the fact that electro-mechanical devices work millions of times faster than the electrochemical ones (like our brain). Even though computers are much faster than the brains, they still need instructions from the humans to carry out a task even as simple as 2+2. But now with AI the things are changing. Computers are now developing the tools that would allow them to make decisions without the aid of the humans. It must also be mentioned that intelligence is not doing things faster, it is a deliberate attempt to do things efficiently and effectively.
Where the two intelligences stand at the moment
As of now, the two forms of intelligences, namely AI and human intelligence, can be seen as two distinct forms of intelligence. While humans are complex and are capable of wide array of intelligent things, the computers are limited to only doing handful of simple tasks intelligently. An average 10 year old human child is already capable of doing things which no robot can ever do, of course the child may not be as specialized in certain area like the computer robot, but generally the child is considered to be far more intelligent because it can do wide variety of intelligent things which the robot cannot.